What is ETP-Effluent Treatment Plant?

  Effluent Treatment plant is a waste water treatment process (WWTP) which is particularly designed to purify the industrial waste water for its reuse. It is mostly used in the industries like pharmaceuticals, textiles, chemical where the danger of extremely contaminated water exists.

       Its goal is to release clean water into the environment in order to counteract the negative effects of effluent. Some effluents contain oils and grease, and some contain toxic materials.

     The technologies used in ETP  includes MBBR System, MBR System, SAFFR System, Sequencing Batch Reactors, Bio-towers System, and Up Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket, they provide cost-effective treatment with less maintenance.

Process Flow Chart of Effluent Treatment plant(ETP):-


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  • We can treat effluent by 2 ways:-
  • Batch Type Effluent Treatment plant
  • Continuous Type Effluent Treatment Plant
  • Objectives of ETP :-

1. To disinfect industrial waste and recycle it for future use

2. To protect the environment from pollution; and 

3. To adhere to government-set criteria for pollutant emissions and avoid paying steep fines

4. To cut back on water acquisition costs

Units of Water Treatment Plant depending upon type of effluent:-
  1. Coagulation – When water is raw or untreated, liquid aluminum sulphate, alum, and/or polymer are added to create coagulation. The resulting mixture makes the dirt coagulate or clump together in the water. After that, the clusters of dirt particles join forces to form flocs, which are then simple to remove via filtration or settling.
  2. Sedimentation – After treatment, flocs and water are deposited in basins for sedimentation. The heavier floc particles sink to the bottom because the water travels slowly in this area. Sludge is floc that collects at the bottom of a container. This continues in drying lagoons.
  3. Filtration – Filtration is the process of passing water through a filter designed to remove impurities from the water. These filters are made of gravel, sand, or occasionally crushed anthracite. Filtration collects contaminants that float on water and increases the power of disinfection. Backwashing is a common method of filter cleaning.
  4. Disinfection – To remove pathogenic bacteria, parasites, and viruses, water is disinfected before entering the distribution system.so for this process chlorine is used.
  5. Sludge Drying – Sludge collected and removed from water by filtration and sedimentation are then sent to drying lagoons.
  6. Fluoridation – In order to minimize tooth cavities, fluoridation treatments local water supplies to optimize the concentration of free fluoride ions. According to the NSW Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies Act of 1957, Hunter Water is required to fluoridate its water.
  7. pH Correction – Lime and filtered water are blended to modify pH levels. Additionally, this stabilizes naturally soft water to reduce corrosion in customers’ plumbing and water distribution system.

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